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27 November 1973 - Delta Air Lines 516

Delta Air Lines flight 516, a DC-9-32, N3323L, struck approach lights 1600ft short of the runway while on an ILS approach to runway 20. The aircraft continued, struck dyke 785ft short of the threshold and skidded for another 1200ft before coming to rest 250ft left of the runway centerline.

PROBABLE CAUSE: "The pilot did not recognize the need to correct an excessive rate of descent after the aircraft had passed decision height. This occurred despite two verbal reports of increasing sink rate by the first officer. The captain disregarded the reports by the first officer, possibly because of the influence of a visual illusion caused by the refraction of light through the heavy rain on the windshield. The excessive rate of descent was initiated by a wind shear condition which extended in the lower levels of the approach path and a glide slope that tended toward the lower signal limit."

Download the full NTSB report

Transcript of the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)

Legenda CAM-1 = Captain
CAM-2 = First Officer
CAM = Cockpit Area Mike (cabin sounds and flight attendants)
RDO-1 = Radio Communications (Captain)
CHA APP: Chattanooga Approach
CHA TWR: Chattanooga Tower

18.45:43.5 CAM-1 How many miles from Daisy?
  CAM-2 Oh, we were four when he said that.
18.45:46 CAM-1 Gear down.
18.46:11 CAM-2 Ignitions on, no smoking's on, gear is down, three green lights, pressure and quantity, flaps and slats 'er down twenty-five, spoiler's armed and the annunciator panel to go.
18.46:53.3 CAM-1 Flaps fifty.
18.46:55 CAM-2 Set.
  CAM-1 Checklist.
  CAM-2 It's complete.
18.47:22 CHA APC Delta five sixteen's over the Daisy Beacon, contact tower one one eight point three.
  RDO-2 Eighteen three, so long.
18.47:32 RDO-2 Chattannooga tower, Delta five sixteen Daisy.
18.47:35.5 CHA TWR Delta five sixteen by Daisy, cleared to land, the wind, ah, one five zero degrees at four.
18.47:40.5 RDO-2 Cleared to land.
18.49:35 CAM Sound of Outer Marker begins
18.49:35.5 CAM-2 We're at a thousand feet above minimums - no flags.
  CAM-1 Right on the glide slope.
18.49:45 CAM Sound of Outer Marker ends
18.50:05.5 CAM-2 I got the lights.
  CAM-1 Keep the wipers on low.
18.50:44 CAM-2 Five hundred feet [above minimums].
  CAM-1 Put 'em on fast.
18.51:03 RDO-1 Kill the rabbit, please.
18.51:12 CAM-2 Two hundred feet.
18.51:26 CAM-2 One hundred above minimums.
18.51:28.5 CAM Sound of Middle Marker begins
  CAM-2 Plus ten that's minimums.
18.51:31.5 CAM-2 I gotta plus five sinking to nine.
18.51:38 CAM-2 Plus five sinking to ten.
18.51:42 CAM Sound of impact
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