USAir Flight 405 was a Fokker F-28 (registered N485US) departing on March 22, 1992 from LaGuardia Airport (New York City) for Cleveland, Ohio.
The aircraft had been de-iced 2 times, but 35mins passed between leaving the gate and take-off. (Type I de-icing fluid safe holdover time is 11 mins.). During take-off from runway 13, with ice accumulated on the wings, the first officer called VR 11kts early. The captain rotated 5kts early, causing the F-28 to enter a stall. The aircraft crashed and came to rest partially inverted and submerged in the bay.
27 of the 51 people onboard were killed.
Transcript of the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)
RDO Radio transmission from accident aircraft
CAM Cockpit Area Microphone sound or source
PA Aircraft Public Address sound or source
-1 Voice identified as Captain
-2 Voice identified as First Officer
-2 Voice unidentified
TWR Laguardia Local Controller (tower)
GND-1 LaGuardia Ground Controller
GND-2 LaGuardia Ground Sequence Controller
UNK Unknown source
* Unintelligible word
@ Nonpertinent word
# Expletive deleted
% Break in continuity
( ) Questionable text
( ( ) ) Editorial insertion
Notes: All times are expressed in eastern standard time only radio transmissions involving the
accident aircraft were transcribed.
TIME & TIME
SOURCE CONTENT SOURCE CONTENT
2104:42 start of recording.
2104:46 start of transcript.
2105:06 CAM-1 there he goes.
2105:07 CAM-2 okay.
2105:37 RDO-2 and ground USAir four oh five's ready to taxi.
2106:18 GND-1 USAir four oh five turn left on the inner and ah hold short of echo.
2106:22 RDO-2 left inner hold short echo USAir four oh five.
2106:24 GND-1 USAir four oh five left turn on the inner hold short of echo. ground on one two one point eight five.
2106:25 CAM-2 left inner hold short of echo.
2106:28 CAM-1 okay.
2106:29 RDO-2 ground on twenty one eighty five USAir four oh five.
2106:34 CAM-2 left on the inner hold short of echo. ground twenty one
2106:48 CAM-2 left on the inner to hold short of echo.
2106:52 CAM-1 yeah that's where everybody else is here.
2106:53 CAM-2 yeah.
2107:12 ((flight switched to ground2 frequency))
2107:27 CAM-? ((sound of person stretching))
2107:38 CAM-1 I'm off.
2107:40 PA-1 folks we are in line for takeoff and I see about ta about seven airplanes ahead ahead of us so ah it's not goin' to be about another eight or nine minutes before it's our turn to go. so thank you for *.
2108:04 CAM-2 You seen that car wash they have at Denver. they like mount it to the hard stands.
2108:14 CAM-2 that's the ideal way of doin' it man.
2108:17 CAM-1 YUP.
2108:18 CAM-2 they ought'a have somethin' like that - this is New York you know. this is they ought'a have that out there.
2108:24 CAM-1 YUP.
2108:25 CAM-2 zip zip zip man just you know. put it on the tab. just cruise on out and take off.
2108:30 CAM-1 that's really the only s- sure fire safe way to do it.
2108:35 CAM-2 yeah.
2108:38 CAM-1 have it be an airport function they just charge each airline as they come through.
2109:59 CAM-2 man we pull up behind this eighty he might keep our wings clear for us.
2110:03 CAM-1 well.
2110:04 CAM-2 ((sound of laugh))
2110:07 CAM-1 it can cause us to re-freeze too.
2110:09 CAM-2 yeah it's true.
2110:12 CAM-1 I don't want to got very close to him.
2110:47 CAM-1 oh man this is gotta be **.
2110:49 CAM-2 how'd you like to be stoppin' a L ten eleven out there tonight. man I'd.
2110:52 CAM-1 how'd you like to be what?.
2110:53 CAM-2 try to stop an L ten eleven out there tonight, heavy.
2111:16 CAM-2 I just want to check in with this guy.
2111:18 RD0-2 ground USAir four oh five adjust checkin' with yua we're ah behind
2111:22 GND-2 USAir four oh five, thank you air. once you have access continue on the outer hold short of runway four at delta.
2111:29 CAM-2 what?
2111:35 CAM-2 hold short of the outer
2112:10 CAM-2 he said somethin' about delta to us?
2112:13 CAM-1 yeah I don't know what he's tellin' us.
2112:14 CAM-2 delta is down there.
2112:16 CAM-1 yeah.
2112:20 CAM-2 does he want us ta I don't I'm just assumin' this he don't want us to go around and cross down at delta does he? or anything get ahead of anybody.
2112:31 CAM-2 I'd ask him to repeat it. what the hell hurt his feelings * I don't know,
2112:42 CAM-1 well we'll clarify it with 'im.
2112:44 RDO-1 and ground ah USAir four oh five. I just want to clarify our taxi instructions one more time.
2112:49 GND-2 USAir four oh five you ah are you right over here off of gate seven? right off my ah - behind company MD- eighty?
2112:56 RDO-1 ah yeah we' re behind the MD-eighty and we're on ah the inner holding short of echo.
2113:01 GND-2 that's fine sir just do that for now.
2113:03 RDO-1 okay.
2113:06 CAM-2 it sure didn't sound like that that I mean. I I didn't understand what he said.
2113:33 GND-2 USAir four oh five taxi across runway four at echo follow your company ND- eighty on alpha.
2113:38 RDO-2 four oh five wilco.
2114:56 CAM-? # man it's *.
2115:45 CAM-2 do you want to go to flaps eleven?.
2115:48 CAM-1 I'm tendin' to go to the eighteen. set it up for eighteen one twenty nine.
2115:54 CAM-2 alright.
2116:05 CAM-1 we'll reduce that vee one down to about a hundred and ten knots or so.
2116:22 CAM-2 okay.
2116:23 CAM-1 man I just ah short runway goin' that fast, whew.
2116:30 CAM-2 did you read that article that Robert @ wrote in Flight Crew View about Vee one?
2116:35 CAM-1 yeah I think I have.
2116:36 CAM-2 it's an excellent article to have.
2117:03 CAM-1 leavin' LaGuardia # man that's a Monday morning flight. that'll probably be jammed.
2117:10 CAM-2 YUP.
2117:16 CAM-2 maybe they'll cancel the Greensboro and just send us to Charlotte.
2117:18 CAM-1 they might yeah might have to.
2117:28 CAM-1 I think if that - people go up to Greensboro -.
2117:30 CAM-2 is there any way if if we shortened our overnight just went out there and flew the flight. ah could we do that legally?
2117:42 CAM-1 you mean leave at departure time?
2117:44 CAM-2 yeah.
2117:45 CAM-1 waive.
2117:46 CAM-2 in other words make it like a COD or somethin'.
2117:51 CAM-1 let -.
2117:52 CAM-2 in other words we would be on duty we would st-- we would.
2117:59 CAM-1 I think we would still be on duty all day long. I mean I don't think they'll let us be on duty like that.
2118:00 CAM-2 yeah.
2118:01CAM-1 they'll pay us one for one and three quarter from ah ten ten this aft this morning until tomorrow. you know ah would be fine with me I mean
2118:11 CAM-2 yeah but we can't stay on duty.
2118:12 CAM-1 I don't I don't I don't know how long. we're not allowed to be on duty more than we can go up to sixteen hours max.
2118:19 CAM-2 yeah so what.
2118:20 CAM-1 we can we can call them and see -.
2118:22 CAM-1 yeah well I will.
2118:26 CAM-1 I mean we're gunna' have to cause I'm just not that fluent with the regulations.
2118:28 CAM-2 yeah I'm not either.
2118:29 CAM ((sound of windshield wipers))
2118:30 CAM-2 I think that they're gunna' have to give us the minimum rest.
2118:34 CAM-2 I mean me personally I will get up and fly the damn thing. but you know I'll go I'll go you know.
2118:39 CAM-1 yeah.
2118:41 CAM-2 may as well let me but I mean that's just I'll waive anythin' to get home the last day you know.
2118:45 CAM-1 well we'd have to have eight hours of rest ah.
2118:56 CAM-2 I can try to make heads or tails out of this thing.
2118:57 CAM-1 during the twenty four hours prior to the completion of the flight right?isn't that the way it works?
2119:03 CAM-2 I could try I could try to make heads or tails out of this stuff.
2120:16 CAM-2 a previous rule.
2120:25 CAM-1 what it amounts to is that prior to ten o'clock. ten ten tomorrow. we've gotta' have eight hours of rest.
2120:33 CAM-2 moreover under no circumstances that a flight crew member receive less than eight consecutive hour rest within a twenty four hour period.
2120:42 CAM-1 so between ten ten today
2120:44 CAM-2 this mornin'.
2120:45 CAM-1 - and ten ten tomorrow, we have to get eight hours of rest. so they're gunna' I guess
2120:51 CAM-2 like we have to be.
2120:55 CAM-2 so there ain't there ain't no way.
2121:33 CAM-2 I mean you could ask them if they could put thru like ah. I don't think that they could do a COD thing like that. just send us to I just don't think they can.
2121:43 CAM-1 no.
2121:46 CAM-1 either they gunna have to get another crew up there or ah there gunna have to delay the flight. there's just no other way.
2122:40 CAM-2 oh man I've ah I've a control tower operator's certificate I do non-federal control tower that was fun I did that in college a little bit.
2122:52 CAM-1 huh.
2122:53 CAM-2 it was a college program.
2122:58 CAM-2 haven't used it since I took my checkride or my check what ever the hell they call it.
2123:04 CAM-2 look at all that stuff.
2123:08 CAM-2 what is that? san sand.
2123:09 CAM-1 sand I guess.
2123:11 CAM-1 urea sand.
2123:11 CAM-2 put that # out there.
2123:13 CAM-2 ((sound of laugh))
2123:21 CAM-1 aviation.
2123:24 CAM-2 aviation is my life.
2123:49 CAM-? ((sound of yawn))
2123:56 CAM-1 yeah they are either gunna' have ta' delay the flight or ah relieve us.
2124:04 CAM-2 well.
2124:06 CAM-1 here's the deal I'm gunna offer 'em. if it's alright with ya'll.
2124:15 CAM-1 you got a schedule?
2124:18 CAM-1 see when the first flight out of Laguardia to Charlotte is?
2124:26 CAM-2 Laguardia to Charlotte?
2124:27 CAM-1 non-stop yeah Monday morning. is that a new schedule?
2124:32 CAM-2 yeah.
2125:02 CAM-2 alpha to papa makin' makin' pro progress here.
2125:09 CAM ((sound of windshield wiper))
2125:42 ((flight switched to tower frequency))
2125:59 CAM-? uhh.
2126:09 CAM-? oh # it's under New York.
2126:15 CAM-2 alright.
2126:18 CAM-2 the first non-stop to Charlotte is seven oh five.
2126:21 CAM-1 what's the next one then?
2124:34 GND-2 USAir four oh five continue via alpha left turn on papa behind company tower's eighteen seven number five.
2124:39 RDO-2 alpha papa behind company good day thank you.
2126:22 CAM-2 eight twenty five.
2126:24 CAM-1 alright let me see. leaves at eight twenty five?
2126:27 CAM-2 and then nine fifty.
2126:29 CAM-1 nine fifty. when would that one get into Charlotte?
2126:32 CAM-2 eleven forty six.
2126:34 CAM-1 # they all.
2126:36 CAM-2 that's us ain't it?
2126:39 CAM-1 no.
2126:39 CAM-2 well we go to.
2126:39 CAM-1 we go to greensboro and we get in at eleven fifty three. so it ain't gunna get us home any earlier.
2126:50 CAM ((sound of windshield wipers start))
2127:23 CAM ((sound of windshield wipers stop))
2127:33 CAM-1 yeah we're just gunna have to delay the flight that's all there is to it unless they got somebody else there.
2129:30 CAM-2 looks pretty good to me from what I can see.
2129:34 CAM-1 yeah.
2129:37 CAM-2 it pretty much stopped the precip.
2129:49 CAM-1 the after start is done is that correct?
2129:51 CAM-2 yes before takeoff to go.
2131:20 CAM-2 you want a Vee one call at one ten?
2131:21 CAM-1 yeah.
2131:25 CAM-1 got one landin' here on one three.
2131:28 CAM-2 yeah there sandin' that other one there.
CAM-1 it's really amazing that they coordinate all this stuff.
2131:36 CAM-2 no
2131:39 CAM-2 cause they got to talk to approach and even center I guess now.
2131:41 CAM-1 yeah.
2131:43 CAM-2 just to sand the runway.
2131:45 CAM-2 it all just backs up.
2131:46 CAM-1 yeah.
2131:56 CAM-1 flaps eighteen.
2131:57 CAM ((sound similar to flap handle being moved))
2131:58 CAM-1 before takeoff checks.
2132:01 CAM-2 APU?
2132:02 CAM-1 it's on.
2132:04 CAM-2 yaw damper?
2132:05 CAM-1 in.
2132:12 CAM-2 lift dumpers?
2132:13 CAM-1 armed and ready.
2132:14 CAM-2 ready right. collector tank indicators?
2132:16 CAM-1 black.
2132:17 CAM-2 black right. flight controls?
2132:19 CAM-1 checked.
2132:20 CAM-2 tops checked. takeoff data thrust indicators?
2132:24 CAM-2 sixty six thousand flaps eleven one ton one twenty nine one thirty four. checked bugs set?
2132:31 CAM-1 ah flaps eighteen please. 2132:34
CAM-2 one ten one twenty four one twenty nine. I'm sorry flaps eighteen.
2132:40 CAM-1 alright yeah one ten one twenty four one twenty nine - checked bugs set.
2132:46 CAM-2 checked bugs set. flaps?
2132:49 CAM-1 eighteen selected and indicated.
2132:51 CAM-2 eighteen selected and indicated. stab and trims? point nine up. zero zero.
2132:59 CAM-1 point nine up?
2133:00 CAM-2 yeah.
2133:01 CAM-1 zero zero.
2133:03 CAM-2 okay and takeoff briefing?
2133:06 CAM-1 right to zero seven five two and a half LaGuardia DME left to zero four zero.
2133:13 CAM-2 right five thousand to the line.
2133:50 TWR USAir four oh five taxi into position and hold one three.
2133:52.8 ((until)) 2133:54.7 RDO-2 position and hold one three USAir four oh five.
2133:56 PA-2 ladies and gentleman from the flight deck we're now number one for departure and we would like our flight attendants to please be seated thank you.
2134:02 CAM-2 flight attendants notified transponder and flight director's on before takeoff check's completed.
2134:10 CAM-2 okay ignition's on flaps eighteen a little discrepancy in our heading of about ah I guess that's this grid up here.
2134:39 CAM ((sound of wipers start and continue until end of recording))
2134:51 TWR USAir four oh five runway one three cleared for takeoff.
2134:54.5 ((until)) 2134:56.4 RDO-2 cleared for takeoff USAir four oh five.
2134:56.6 CAM ((sound similar to parking brake being released))
2134:58.7 CAM ((sound of increasing engine noise))
2135:00.5 CAM-1 power's stabilized.
2135:02.3 CAM-1 detent set takeoff thrust.
2135:07.6 CAM-2 takeoff thrust's set temps okay.
2135:12.3 CAM-2 power's, looks good.
2135:17.1 CAM-1 eighty knots.
2135:17.7 CAM-2 eighty knots.
2135:22.72 ((until)) 2135:24.72 CAN ((sound similar to nine thumps))
2135:25.4 CAM-2 vee one.
2135:26.2 CAM-2 vee R.
2135:28.40 CAM sound similar to nose strut ext
2135:29.4 CAM ((sound of windshield wiper))
2135:30.17 CAM ((sound of snap))
2135:30.56 CAM ((sound similar to magnetic indicators click))
2135:30.67 CAM ((sound similar to magnetic indicators click))
2135:33.2 CAM ((sound of stick shaker starts and continues until end of recording))
2135:33.4 CAM ((sound of stall warning beep))
2135:34 *. CAM-?
2135:35.2 CAM-1 God.
2135:38.3 CAM ((sound of five stall warning beeps))
2135:39.7 CAM-? # come on.
2135:40.78 CAM ((sound of first impact))
2135:41.4 CAM ((sound of stall warning beep))
2135:41.58 CAM ((sound of second impact))
2135:41.77 RDO-? ((sound of microphone key for 0.05 seconds))
2135:42.05 CAM ((sound of third impact))
2135:42.25 RDO-? ((sound of microphone key for 0.34 seconds))
2135:42.72 End of recording